Article by Eldath Mon
Romania is a democracy with a parliamentary cabinet system. Legislative power is concentrated in a bicameral parliament: the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputa?ilor) and Senate (Senate). Chamber of Deputies has 315 members constitutionally, but their actual number is greater (in office from 2008 to 2012 – 334 members), due to the complexities of electoral law, combining the elections in single-member constituencies with the law proportional (proportional method is applied to the separation of participating in elections lots of seats where no candidate won 50% of the votes valid in this case the electoral threshold). In particular, additional seats in the Chamber of Deputies receive under certain conditions the representatives of national minority organizations, thereby ensuring that the constitution – it stems from the fact that for many years the rights of other nationalities in Romania were not broken, why I want the state to grant them genuine power in social life and political. The number of members of the Senate is the 137th Constituencies in the elections to the Chamber Deputowanej count after 70 thousand. electors and the election of a district in the Senate falls to 160 thousand. voters. Both chambers are elected every four years by universal suffrage, secret, equal and direct.
At the head of the executive president is directly elected every 5 years (to 2004 at four), which is the highest representative of the state, appointing ambassadors, the head of the army – but he does not exercise real power, which is concentrated in the hands of the Chief Executive. Until 2009, the government in Romania was in the hands of the grand coalition, formed two major parties in the country: the right-wing People’s Democratic Party (PD-L) and ex-communist Social Democratic Party (PSD). In 2009, PSD has emerged from the coalition which led the government crisis, and after some time, forming a new coalition of the PD-L and the Hungarian Democratic Union in Romania. Head of Government is Emil Boc of PD-L, the president has Traian Basescu. In opposition is the National Liberal Party (PNL), which is led by former Prime Minister Calin Tariceanu Popescu. Is also a significant role in the policy of the Greater Romania Party (Partidul Romnia Mare), with Vadim Tudor in the lead. It represents the extreme nationalist views, but does not enter into the composition of parliament.Bulletproof vest inventor was John Szczepanik and Casimir ?egle?  . In his vest idea projectile energy is absorbed in successive layers of fabric, which itself was sewn vest. Publicly performed tests have shown that Szczepanik fabric is resistant to bullets able to pierce thick pine board and an iron plate, and the dagger. It turned out that polythene parawanie fabric, reinforced with a layer of thin sheet metal, not only stopped the bullets from his pistol caliber 8 mm, but even with the Mannlicher rifle which przestrzeliwa?y through a steel plate with a thickness of 12 millimeters at a distance of 100 m. The inventor has become known worldwide in 1902, when a carriage lined with bullet-proof fabric spared his idea before the bomb and very likely the death of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. The idea Szczepanik, years later, however, has been forgotten because there are new types of missiles, against which the vest could not protect. Jan Szczepanik used silk, which has limited strength – did not exist then the fibers of greater strength.
Among the first who started to take care of their security, former U.S. gangsters. In the twenties of the twentieth century have developed this kind of “trade dress” of the fabric obszywanych steel plates, which have higher ballistic resistance, but also repeatedly raised the weight of the vest, making it restrain the movements of the protected.
During World War II on a large scale began to be used to stop bullets jackets. Later, during the Vietnam War, podliczono that a very large percentage of soldiers killed from the debris of grenades and mines, that is, particles with low kinetic energy and low penetration properties. In order to improve the situation of the equipment U.S. soldiers have been put special jackets made of several layers of thick and durable fabric, which had to defend against fragments.
In 1965, working for the company’s Stephanie Kwolek of DuPont has received new synthetic fiber – Kevlar. This material was characterized by very high mechanical strength and heat resistance, proved to be excellent for the manufacture of lightweight jackets, which were able to stop bullets.